We began this project in 2017 as a collaboration with a friend.  More recently we have been patenting some of the work on behalf of some small companies.  This work is covered under confidentiality.  However, we will be able to refer you to their websites soon for more details.
Although this subject may seem far afield compared to our other work, the emphasis again is on working with the water content of a fluid, figuring out the components, and optimizing the composition of the fluid and its derivatives. 

Meanwhile, here is some information about human milk, including a general summary and a table of molecular and cellular components and their functions.

Human milk products: Nature's Premier Materials for Healthy and Stronger Bodies

Aquero's human milk products are arguably foremost among natural health supplements. They contain pure, human breast milk, freshly expressed, freshly preserved, and certified-safe from participant mothers whose milk has been screened regarding microbial and other contaminants.

Human breast milk is a marvelous natural product having an astonishing array of beneficial properties. There are literally 10's of thousands of health-promoting components of human milk.  Here is a compilation of many of these, their functions, along with citations of some of the professional literature about them.

Breast milk promotes growth and development of strong bodies, and not just of babies. It contributes to healthy and trouble-free digestion, including suppression of irritable bowel diseases. But there is so much more as well. Just to cite a few examples: human milk components have been reported to boost immunity, suppress and kill cancer cells, act as both antimicrobial and antiviral agents, promote sleep, suppress anxiety, and to both sooth and prevent skin irritations such as rashes, insect bites, and eczema.

This stands to reason when we consider the remarkable and wholly beneficial array of components of human milk. These include valuable proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, lactose, and specialized oligosaccharides, as well as other useful compounds, and all of these combine in their health effects. Many of the components are effective even if present in very small amounts.

Among the proteins are those that provide minerals and nutrition, as well as several immunoglobulins and enzymes that fight microbes and viruses. There are even complex neuro-chemicals that contribute to brain function and neuronal repair, as well as a multitude of reactions of cellular membranes.

As with any nutritional supplement, people having adverse reactions with dairy or other types of food should exercise normal caution when consuming human milk products.  

Benefits and Components of Milk:  Regarding milk and human milk in particular, many benefits and uses of freeze-dried whole milk and milk components as referenced in part above have been documented over the years, as shown in Table 1.  The number of individual beneficial molecules and components of milk including human milk is estimated to range well into the thousands (Reinhardt et al., 2013; Ballard and Morrow, 2013).  A selection of the many molecular and cellular components of human milk that underlie its benefits and uses is shown in Table 2.  Some of the benefits of lactation to the mothers are shown in Table 3.

Table 1.  Some Benefits and Uses of Milk


Milk Type









maintains pleasant taste and odor

preserves components

preserves pleasing white, cream color

Many, starting with McIntyre, 1894; Suranyl et al. 1960;

Ogden, 1967;

El-Shafei et al., 1988 a, b;

Lozano, et al., 2014;

Cavazos-Garduno et al., 2016


freezing may kill microbes, promote sterilization

proposed by McIntyre, 1894


ease of reconstitution

reconstitution to desired dilution (solids)

Ogden, 1967


unnecessary to keep frozen after lyophilization

Cortez and Soria, 2016


extended shelf life at room temperature, 

improved preservation of components versus freezing at -20 or -80 C,

preserves bacteriocidal activity

ease of transportation

Salcedo et al., 2015 a, 2015 b




Lowers infant risk of multiple diseases from earaches to sudden infant death

Eidelman and Schanler, 2012


treats insect bites, stings

treats poison ivy, oak irritations

treats burns, sunburn

treats skin conditions (rashes, eczema, acne)

Farahani et al. 2013;

Gozen et al., 2014

Arnold, 1994;

Lamireau, 2015


extended shelf life at room temperature, 

improved preservation of components versus freezing at -20 or -80 C,

preserves bacteriocidal activity

ease of transportation

Salcedo et al., 2015 a, 2015 b




promotes wound healing, tissue regeneration

Dalli et al. 2014;

Newmark, 2017





promotes bone density

Feskanich et al., 2017





promotes healthy gut flora

van Wettere, 2016;

Gomez-Gallego et al., 2013;

Guerin et al., 2017, 2018


protects against intestinal infection

Morrow et al., 2004;

Newburg et al. 2004;

Liu and Newburg, 2013;

Yu et al., 2016; also see

O'Connor et al., 2018


promotes intestinal maturation

C. Gomez-Gallego et al., 2013


inhibits harmful microbial growth

Honour and Dolby, 1979;

Kunz et al., 2000;

Bode and Jantscher-Krenn, 2012;

Lin et al., 2017


inhibits bladder infections

Lin et al., 2014


antiviral activity

Iskarpatyoti et al., 2012;

Bode et al., 2012


promotes retinal and macular health

Gopinath et al., 2014;

Bharwani, et al., 2016


protects against food allergies

Castillo-Courtade et al., 2015





promotes brain development, improves  infant memory

McJarrow et al., 2009;

Ryan et al., 2013;

Berg et al., 2017;

Cheatham and Sheppard, 2015


promotes chromosomal health,  increased telomere length, increased cellular longevity

Wojcicki et al., 2016


promotes sleep, anti-anxiety

dela Pena et al., 2015, Kitano et al., 2014








antiaging effects


immune protection

stimulates stem cells

treats insomnia

stimulates bone formation

promotes wound healing

antimicrobial activity

supports skin repair

Kumaran, 2015 - 2018;

Mehra et al., 2006;

Christiansen, 2010;

Oliveira et al., 2015;

Reinhardt et al., 2013



wound healing adjuvant,

suppresses diabetes

Agrawal et al., 2007, 2011;

Abdel-Salam, 2014;

Ebaid et al., 2015;

Shori, 2015;

Shareha et al., 2016




digestive tract health,

low allergenicity compared to bovine milk, inhibits angiotensin - lowers blood pressure

Oliveira et al., 2015;

Clark and Garcia, 2017;

Balthazar et al., 2017;

Tagliazucchi et al., 2018



promotes beneficial intestinal flora

controls eczema

controls psoriasis

reduces colitis

hypoallergenic vs bovine milk

stimulates the immune system

supplement in cancer therapy

Koch, 2002 - 2017;

Kuklinski et al., 2011;

Vincenzetti et al., 2011;

Salimei and Fantuz, 2012





enhanced antimicrobial activity

Peel et al., 2016





Table 2.  Some Beneficial Components of Human Milk


Examples of functions


Representative References


amino acids

building blocks of proteins

Darragh and Moughan, 1998; Ballard and Morrow, 2013; also as taught in general biochemical textbooks



As taught in general biochemical textbooks


regulates metabolism

Woo et al., 2012,

Andreas et al. 2014,

Anderson et al., 2015


targets infected (tumor) cells for removal

Svensson et al., 2002


Neutralize free radicals, protect versus cellular degradation

Friel et al., 2008;

Grazyna et al., 2016


protein feedstock, calcium and phosphorus supply

Martin et al., 2016

cathelicidins (peptides)


Oftedal, 2013;

Peel et al., 2016


Promotes memory with DHA and lutein in infants

Cheatam and Sheppard, 2015

cytokines (proteins)

wound healing, cell migration, cell adhesion

Garofalo, 2010;

Yoneme et al., 2015

docosahexanoic acid (DHA) plus antioxidants

suppresses retinopathy (retinal detachment)

Bharwani et al., 2016

extracellular vesicles

regulate cell growth, control inflammation

van Herwijnen et al., 2016

fats (fatty acids, lipids)

components of all cells, structural

Ballard and Morrow, 2013; also as taught in general biochemical textbooks

gangliosides (ceramides)

Brain development, antimicrobial activity

Wang et al., 2003;

Rueda, 2007;

McJarrow et al., 2009;

Iwamori et al., 2008;

Gurnida et al., 2012

growth factors

development, regeneration, healing

Nagashima et al., 1990;

Khailova et al., 2009;

Fichter et al., 2011;

Patki et al., 2012;

Ballard and Morrow, 2013;

Asena et al., 2016.

glucocorticoid (cortisol)

regulates metabolism, growth

Hahn-Holbrook et al., 2016


inhibit pathogens, modulate immunity, provide nutrition

Newburg, 2013


protect against pathogens

Liu and Newburg, 2013



Goldman, 1993;

Ballard and Morrow, 2013


energy supply, nutrition, upregulates immunity

Cederlund et al., 2013


antimicrobial, immunity

Adamkin and Kerner, 2012


promotes digestive tract development, controls microbes

Al-Sheri et al., 2015


regulates energy metabolism, controls hunger

Salimei and Fantuz, 2012

Savino et al., 2016

lipoproteins (sulfido-conjugates)

regeneration, healing

Serhan et al., 2011;

Weiss et al., 213.


brain and eye development

Costa et al., 2015;

Lieblein-Boff et al., 2015

Thoene et al., 2019



Jarvinen and Suomalainen, 2002;

Cabinian et al., 2016;

Baban et al., 2018


suppresses microbial pathogens

Minami et al., 2016


promotes sleep, reduces colic

Cohen Engler et al., 2012

milk peptides

over 300 known, antimicrobial, immune response

Friel and Apollinaire, 2013;  Dallas et al., 2013, 2014

milk fat globules

nutrition, immunity

Cavaletto et al., 2008


enzyme cofactors

Ballard and Morrow, 2014

micro RNA's

immunity and healthy development

Alsaweed et al., 2016

oligosaccharides (milk carbohydrates)

over 150 known, immune response,

antimicrobial effects,

suppress lactose intolerance

Bode et al., 2012, 2016; Iskarpatyoti et al., 2012;

Yu et al., 2012, 2016;

Baynham et al., 2013;

Farahani et al., 2013;

Savaiano et al., 2013;

Castillo-Courtade et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2017;

Miliku et al., 2018



immunity, digestive development, brain development

Jiang and Lonnerdal, 2016


improve cognition, dampen stress

Boyle et al., 2019


maturation of the digestive tract

Loser, 2000;

Larque et al., 2007;

C. Gomez-Gallego et al., 2013.


lactation by mother, intestinal function of infant

Yuan, 1988

proteins (up to 3000 individual proteins identified)

major component of all cells, catalysis, structural elements, movement, membrane transport, wound healing, immune response, antimicrobial effects, many others

Hylmo et al., 1984;

Picariello et. al., 2012;

Molinari et al., 2012;

Ballard and Morrow, 2013; Reinhardt et al., 2013;

Altomare et al., 2016;

Guerin et al., 2017, 2018;

general biochemical textbooks.


(a nitrogen base)

regulates mood, social behavior, appetite, digestion, sleep, memory, and sexual function

Chiba et al., 2017

sialic acid

brain development, immunity

Rohrig et al., 2017


bacteriostatic, anticancer, lower cholesterol

Potocki, 2016

stem cells

development, repair, replacement of multiple cellular types and organs

Patki et al., 2010;

Hassiotou et al., 2012, 2013


major component of all cells, energy metabolism

Ballard and Morrow, 2013; also as taught in general biochemical textbooks.



enzyme cofactors, essential to metabolic pathways

Ballard and Morrow, 2013; also as taught in general biochemical textbooks.


Table 3.  Some breastfeeding benefits to mothers:

lowers risk of breast cancer

lowers risk of ovarian cancer

lowers risk of uterine cancer

lowers risk of Alzheimer's

lowers risk of osteoporosis

lowers risk of diabetes

lowers risk of stroke later in life

lessens multiple sclerosis relapses

boosts the immune system

enhances infant bonding

suppresses ovulation


note: pre-pregnancy health is regarded as significant to these benefits

Aragon et al., 2014; Xiong et al., 2018;       Garner et al., 2019

Hempsey, 2015;

Farahani et al. 2013;

Gozen et al., 2014;

Hellwig et al., 2015;

Gunderson et al., 2018;

Jacobson et al., 2018






Velle-Forbord et al., 2019

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